Albert Einstein is one of the most influential physicists of the Twentieth Century. He is known for special and general theories of relativity and his explanation of the photoelectric effect. He was awarded ‘Noble Prize’ for physics in 1921. His work has a major role in the development of atomic energy. He had a passion for playing violin, mathematics and science.
Albert Einstein was born in the German city of Ulm, Wurttemberg on March 14th, 1879 in a secular middle-class Jewish family. He grew up in Munich. Einstein dropped out of high school at age 15 in 1894. During his teens, his first scientific work was “The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields”. He moved to Switzerland and decided to his education, Einstein applied for the entrance exam to the prestigious Swiss Federal Institute of Technology but failed. He passed the university’s entrance exam on his second attempt. He renounced his German citizenship and became a Swiss citizen in 1900.
While studying in Zurich, Einstein also met his future wife, Mileva Maric, a Serbian physics student. In 1902, Einstein started working as a clerk in a Swiss patent office. Einstein and Maric married in 1903, they had two sons Hans and Eduard.
In his spare time as a clerk, Einstein developed his most remarkable work in 1905 also known as his “miracle year” by publishing four groundbreaking scientific articles.
- Photoelectric effect: Applied quantum theory to light. The material will emit electrically charged particles when hit by light.
- Brownian motion: Existence of atoms by analyzing the phenomenon of Brownian motion by suspending tiny particles in water.
- The special theory of relativity: The laws of physics are the same even for objects moving in different inertial frames.
- Equation E=mc2: Tiny particles of matter could be converted into huge amounts of energy. Einstein’s equation E = mc2 provided the first mechanism to explain the energy source of the Sun and other stars.
This famous equation led to Einstein’s indirect contribution to the basis of the development of the atomic bomb.
In 1915, Einstein completed the general theory of relativity. His other key developments include the existence of black holes, time travel, wormholes and the creation of the universe, unified field theory, cosmology, photon theory of light, particle theory and the motion of molecules, etc.
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In Germany, the Nazis led by Adolf Hitler came into power before the World War II. They started targeting Jewish citizens and Einstein theories received a backlash as it was labeled as “Jewish physics”. Einstein work and theories were denounced by them. Hence in December 1932, Einstein immigrated from Germany to the U.S. and became an American Citizen in 1940. He made Princeton, New Jersey his permanent home and did not go back to the country of his birth.
A pacifist Einstein identified the Zionist movement. When Einstein came to about the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, he became a major figure to speak against the use of nuclear weapons. Einstein was a leading figure in Zionist movement and was offered the post of president of Israel, which he declined.
Einstein died at the age of 76, on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey due to suffered an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Physicist Albert Einstein’s brain was removed for the scientific study of neuroscience and research purposes. Einstein is synonymous with genius and smart and intelligent person for his intellectual achievements.
Below are famous ‘Albert Einstein’ quotes:
Imagination is more important than knowledge.
The significant problems we have cannot be solved at the same level of thinking with which we created them.
Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.
Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.
Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.
Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value.
Only a life lived for others is a life worthwhile.